PostgreSQL 9.3 adds a new feature related to monitoring with the commit below.
commit ac2e9673622591319d107272747a02d2c7f343bd Author: Robert Haas <email@example.com> Date: Wed Jan 23 10:58:04 2013 -0500 pg_isready New command-line utility to test whether a server is ready to accept connections. Phil Sorber, reviewed by Michael Paquier and Peter Eisentraut
Called pg_isready, this allows to ping a wanted server to get a status of its activity. This module is a simple wrapper of PQping that can be called directly and customized with a set of options.
Here are the possible options.
$ pg_isready --help pg_isready issues a connection check to a PostgreSQL database. Usage: pg_isready [OPTION]... Options: -d, --dbname=DBNAME database name -q, --quiet run quietly -V, --version output version information, then exit -?, --help show this help, then exit Connection options: -h, --host=HOSTNAME database server host or socket directory -p, --port=PORT database server port -t, --timeout=SECS seconds to wait when attempting connection, 0 disables (default: 3) -U, --username=USERNAME database username
This feature is really easy to use, for example in the case of a server online.
$ pg_isready -p 5432 -h localhost localhost:5432 - accepting connections
For a server offline, sending no response back.
$ pg_isready -p 5433 -h localhost localhost:5433 - no response
For a server rejecting connections.
pg_isready -p 5432 -h $SERVER_IP $SERVER_IP:5432 - rejecting connections
The feature has also a quiet mode. So scripts can use the output value of pg_isready to check the server activity. Once again with the previous examples.
$ pg_isready -p 5432 -h localhost -q; echo $? 0 $ pg_isready -p 5433 -h localhost -q; echo $? 2
0 is outputted for a server accepting connections, 2 is used in the case where no response comes back from the server. Then, 3 is the result if an internal error happens, like a wrong option specified. 1 corresponds to the case where connections are rejected.
It is honestly more intuitive to have such a wrapper in core than something that uses a query of the type "SELECT 1" to check the activity of a server. In summary, it is one of those little things that can make your life as a PostgreSQL user easier.